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Session Overview
PAP-17: Intervention and Self-Concept
Time: Thursday, 30/Aug/2012: 9:00am - 10:30am
Session Chair: Arnout Prince, University of Groningen
Location: 254


Implementation of Educational Interventions: theory and practice

Arnout Prince, Marlous Tiekstra, Alexander Minnaert

University of Groningen, Netherlands, The

Interventions are considered to be an important part of educational research. Often in educational intervention research, the emphasis is placed on the content ort the effectiveness of the intervention. The implementation of interventions, however, remains a challenging process, and is worth consideration. In this theoretical paper, based on research experiences of the authors and scientific literature, an analysis is made of the implementation process. From a social-constructivist framework, the players involved in the implementation process are considered as an interrelated web. Moreover, the importance of environmental and motivational influences on decision making processes of the players during the implementation process is stressed. Several paradoxes are exposed while analyzing the motives and interrelations of the players. These paradoxes contribute to the complexity of implementation in the educational context. Additionally, the differences of opinion over what methodological approach to use both within the scientific field and between the scientific and the educational field add to the complexity. The question is posed to what extend interventions should be scientifically credible and to what extend societally credible. The role of the scientific community in this discussion is highlighted. Recommendations are made to the researchers to have explicit consideration for interrelatedness of the players involved in intervention implementation and to take into account the influences of both the environment as well as motivational processes when implementing interventions.

Enhancing motivation in the first years of secondary education: a longitudinal intervention study

Jaap Schuitema, Thea Peetsma, Ineke Van der Veen

University of Amsterdam, Netherlands, The

This study investigated the effects of an intervention developed to enhance student motivation in the first years of secondary education. The intervention, based on future time perspectives theory, was aimed to make students aware that what they do at school will have consequences for their possibilities in the future. The intervention has been found to be effective in prevocational secondary education (Peetsma & Van der Veen, 2008; 2009). The present study extends the previous studies by focusing on all levels of secondary education and investigating the effects of the intervention over a longer period. 772 students (age 12 at the start) from secondary education participated in the study. A self-report questionnaire was administered five times during the first two years in secondary education, measuring future time perspectives, goal orientation and motivated learning behaviour. 65 students were randomly selected to participate in the interventions. During the two year period, the interventions were performed three times with each of the selected students. 32 randomly selected students were interviewed as a first control condition. The second control group consisted of the remaining 675 students who only filled in the questionnaires. The data were analysed using latent growth curve modelling. The results resembled those in previous studies; we found positive effects of the intervention on the development in motivated learning behaviour and performance approach. In addition to these studies, the present study showed that the intervention was effective in all levels of secondary education and over a period of two years.

Motivational Outcomes for Mentors in a University-Wide Mentor Program

Susan Beltman

Curtin University, Australia

This paper builds on the argument that mentoring supports motivational outcomes (MacCallum, Palmer & Beltman, 2005). The motivation of students in higher education, particularly their engagement in the first year and persistence over time, is a concern addressed by programs to develop university student participation and retention (ACER, 2010). Mentoring programs are one strategy that can support the engagement and persistence of mentees (Packard, 2004/2005). Few studies have focused on the motivational outcomes for the mentors themselves, although a number have demonstrated various personal and social outcomes (Hughes, Boyd, & Dykstra, 2010). This paper examines the benefits reported by mentors in a university-wide peer mentoring program. Data from 858 mentors from 2009, 2010 and 2011 were coded inductively and four major categories of benefits emerged: Altruistic (47.2%; e.g. enjoyed helping students), Cognitive (17.8%; e.g. developed leadership skills), Social (14.7%; e.g. developed friendship with mentees) and Personal Growth (13.8%; e.g. developed confidence, pride). It is suggested that these benefits or outcomes may be understood in relation to different theories of motivation. For example, the personal growth outcomes link to socio-cognitive theories’ concepts such as self-efficacy, and social outcomes link to self-determination theory’s basic need of connectedness. Limitations of the research and ideas for further studies are discussed. It is suggested that the motivational outcomes of such mentoring programs have the potential to impact on the engagement, participation and persistence of senior student mentors

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