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PAP-15: Physical Education and Music
Need support and need thwarting in physical education: Do general causality orientations of teachers matter?
1Ghent University, Belgium; 2Flemish Research Foundation
Because the quality of teaching behavior (i.e., motivating or de-motivating) in physical education relates to a variety of student outcomes, it is important to gain insight into the dynamics of antecedents of teaching behavior. This study explores the relationship between the general motivational orientation of 79 PE teachers and their observed teaching behavior in a physical education class. Teaching behavior is examined from a self-determination theory perspective, using an observation tool including need supportive and need thwarting dimensions. After controlling for teacher and student background variables, controlled orientation related negatively to overall need support and provided structure during the learning process and positively overall need thwarting, control, and cold interactions. No convincing associations were found between an autonomy orientation and teaching behaviors. These results suggest that designing effective interventions might be a challenge for controlled oriented teachers not only because they engage less often in need supportive and more often in need thwarting behaviors, but also because they might be less open to incorporate messages given in such intervention programs. Possible explanations for the non-existence of the relationship between autonomy orientation and teaching behavior will be discussed in the presentation. This study is one of the first studies investigating antecedents of teacher behavior in relation to observed teaching behavior, simultaneously focusing on the bright (need supportive; motivating) and darker side (need thwarting, de-motivating) of teaching behavior in physical education.
Quality of motivation and objectively assessed physical activity levels in PE: Dimensional and person-centered approach
Ghent university, Belgium
Despite evidence for the utility of Self-Determination Theory (SDT) in Physical Education (PE), few studies used objective indicators of physical activity and mapped out between-class, relative to between-student, differences in physical activity. In addition, most previous SDT studies in PE adopted a variable-centered rather than a person-centered approach. The current paper presents two studies. Study 1 investigated associations between quality of motivation and objectively assessed physical activity levels and rated collective engagement in PE at both the class- and the student-level. Study 2 aimed at mapping out different motivational profiles of students to participate in PE and examining whether these profiles differentially relate to students’ physical activity and perceived need-support.
Participants were 739 students (out of 46 different classes) in Study 1 and 964 students (out of 70 different classes) in Study 2. Multilevel analyses in Study 1 revealed that students’ personal autonomous motivation related positively to MVPA. Average autonomous class motivation was positively related to between-class variation in MVPA and collective engagement. Average controlled class motivation and average class amotivation were negatively associated with collective engagement. We are currently in the process of analyzing the data of Study 2 and will have those results available for presentation at the conference. These profile analyses will help to determine which groups of students are more actively engaged and experience their PE teacher as most need-supportive. Findings will be discussed in light of SDT’s emphasis on quality of motivation.
Physical activity of elementary school students – Development of German scales
Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany
Lack of physical activity (PA) among elementary school students is an increasingly widespread phenomenon. But which factors are motivating children to be physically active? According to Ajzen’s theory of planned behaviour, effects of attitude (intrinsic and extrinsic), subjective norm and perceived behavioural control (controllability and self-efficacy) are expected. However, German scales for determinants of PA in elementary students still need to be developed. Thus, we aimed at developing such in a mixed-method-design. As a first step, a qualitative elicitation study with guideline-based interviews (N = 47) was conducted. The answers were assigned a set of categories with high interrater agreement (Κn ≥ .93). Based on these results scales were developed and piloted with N = 92 students. The reliabilities of the scales (.62 ≤ α ≤ .84) are indicators of a successful scale construction. This also holds true for the statistically significant correlations of the scales with self-reported PA. In the next step, the scales were used in a larger sample (N = 409, 47.3 % girls, 51.7 % boys; age: M = 8.95, SD = 0.56). The five factors could be differentiated in a confirmatory factor analysis (CFI = .95, TLI = .93, SRMR < .05, RMSEA = .06) and the scales proved to be valid predictors for PA (R2 = .42). Beyond that, longitudinal effects were examined through path analysis (N = 314), where subjective norm proved to be an important predictor of changes in PA. Implications for the use of the scales in cross-national comparisons are discussed.
Choirboys and Other Academic-Track Students—Determinants of Musical Activities at Academic-Track Schools with Different Profiles
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany
What determines the musical activities of high school students? According to the theory of planned behaviour, attitudes (including intrinsic values), subjective norms (including the musical affinity of friends and parents), and perceived behavioural control (including musical self-concept) are relevant predictors. Attending a high school with a musical profile should also prove relevant. These hypotheses were tested using data from a sample of N = 2016 musically active academic-track students. In multiple-group structural equation models, a reference group of boys at schools without a distinctive musical profile was compared with girls at the same schools and with boys at schools with a distinctive musical profile. Model fit of the final model was acceptable (RMSEA = .051; CFI = .911; TLI = .916). As expected, boys at schools with a distinctive musical profile reported themselves engaged in more musical activities and that their friends and parents had a greater affinity for music. Within groups, effects of predictors were mixed. Implications for how school profiles can foster musical activities are discussed.
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Conference: ICM 2012
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