Final Conference Agenda
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SYM-14: Music and Motivation
A wide body of empirical research, in cognitive, educational, and positive psychology, has emerged in the past three decades to investigate the factors that contribute towards individual performance expertise. Expert performance research has (EPR) helped to explain the high level of commitment necessary towards skill acquisition in various fields, including performance expertise in musicians. Musical skill was directly correlated with the amount of musical practice and relevant training activities during the lifetime of the musician, thus confirming the high level of commitment necessary to attain a performance career. Passion research also studied expert musicians to further develop an understanding of what predicted a higher level of performance mastery. Finally, under the self-determination theory framework, music researchers began looking at the relationship of individual needs satisfaction towards persistence and functionality. On the forefront of a new frontier, the current researchers seek to find clues on how to increase engagement in the training musician, cultivating the social-behavioral aspects of music teaching and learning.
Predicting Deliberate Practice in the Passionate Musician
Individual, United States of America
Expert performance research has (EPR) helped to explain the high level of commitment necessary towards performance mastery in musicians. Musical skill was directly correlated with the amount of musical practice during the lifetime of the musician. A higher level of musical expertise was dependent upon effortful practice, called deliberate practice, during which musicians focused on specific goals with immediate feedback and repetition. Passion research investigated the mediational role of deliberate practice and passion within expert classical musicians to explain the high level of commitment necessary to attain a performance career. Obsessive-passionate (OP) musicians, who were thought to be motivated by social comparison, were found to spend less time doing deliberate practice and derived less satisfaction from practice than did harmonious-passionate musicians (HP) who were motivated by skill acquisition. The goal of this study was to establish whether the HP or the OP undergraduate applied music students (N = 36) at three U.S. universities reported the highest amount of deliberate practice. Multiple regression analysis, using two self-report scales, the Passion Scale Adapted for Musicians and the Deliberate Practice Satisfaction Scale, indicated that the HP musicians were more positively correlated with deliberate practice than were the OP musicians, thus supporting the passion research by Bonneville-Roussy, Lavigne, and Vallerand (2010).
Persistence in Higher Musical Education: Influences of Autonomy-Support and Passion
University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
A growing body of research has investigated the links between learning environments, students’ motivation and persistence in higher education. In line with Self-Determination Theory (SDT), persistence that students display towards their own schooling could be partly explained by the autonomy-supportive interpersonal style adopted by their teachers. In addition, the Dualistic Model of Passion (DMP) posits that the development of an harmonious or an obsessive passion could be facilitated by the levels of autonomy-support experienced by students. In turn, the two types of passion have been linked with persistence in various domains. However, the processes by which autonomy-support and passion are linked to educational persistence are currently unknown. The main aim of this study was to examine a model linking autonomy support, passion and persistence in a college music program using a 4-month prospective study design. Autonomy support from music teachers was expected to lead to harmonious passion towards music and to persistence in music. On the contrary, less autonomy-supportive environments were expected to lead to obsessive passion and to undermine persistence. The results mainly supported these hypotheses. The impact of autonomy support and passion in persistence in music and in other educational settings will be discussed.
Self-Determination Theory in Music: A 10-year longitudinal and retrospective study of motivation to learn a musical instrument.
University of New South Wales, Australia
The role of basic psychological needs (a component of self-determination theory), commitment, and practice were examined as a means of studying children’s motivation for learning a musical instrument over a period of 10 years. Participants (N = 157) began learning a musical instrument in 8 primary (elementary) schools in Sydney, Australia, and the role of music in their lives was examined longitudinally as they either continued learning or undertook other activities, as well as retrospectively when the participants were entering young adulthood. In a multivariate analysis, satisfaction of basic psychological needs (competence, relatedness, and autonomy) was significantly lower when the participants were deciding to cease music learning, compared with when they were most highly engaged in music. The finding was supported by a content analysis of participants’ self-reported reasons for ceasing music learning. Furthermore, the children’s long-term commitment to learning a musical instrument was assessed before they began learning, and this interacted with the amount of practice they eventually undertook in predicting their achievement after 3 years, as well as how long they actually sustained music learning activities within a period of 10 years, suggesting that both commitment and practice are necessary if music learning is to be sustained. Theoretical explanations involving self-determination theory and possible selves are posited. The findings demonstrate the importance of basic psychological needs, autonomy, and identity in learning a musical instrument. A research agenda for mapping self-determination theory in music is advanced.
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Conference: ICM 2012
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