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Session Overview
POS-4: Well-Being and Physical Activity
Time: Wednesday, 29/Aug/2012: 10:30am - 11:30am
Location: 0.251


Motivational profile and psychological well-being in later life: a cluster analysis.

Emin Altintas1, Evelyne Clément2, Bruno Vivicorsi2, Pierre Jeannelle2, Bruno Vilette1, Alain Guerrien1

1Université Lille Nord de France UDL3, PSITEC Lab., France; 2Université de Rouen, PSY-NCA Lab. (ICONES), France

On the basis of the Self-Determination Theory, the first objective of our study was to investigate the different motivational profiles of an elderly population. The second objective was to investigate the association between motivational profiles and psychological well-being. We hypothesized that the self-determined profiles would be associated with high level of psychological well-being, while the non-self-determined profiles would be associated with lower level. Seventy three elderly participants (M = 74.21 years, SD = 7.89) took part in this study. First, they completed the Elderly Motivation Scale (Vallerand & O’Connor, 1991). Second and in order to compute a well-being index, they performed the Satisfaction with life scale (Diener et al., 1985), the Meaning of life scale (Ryff & Essex, 1992), the Self-esteem scale (Vallières & Vallerand, 1990) and, the Depression scale (BDI-21, Beck et al., 1961).

A cluster analysis revealed three motivational profiles: 1) a moderate level of autonomous motivation associated with a moderate level of controlled motivation and amotivation (Moderate Motivational Profile), 2) a high level of autonomous and controlled motivation associated with a low level of amotivation (High Motivational Profile), 3) a high level of autonomous motivation associated with a low level of controlled motivation and amotivation (Autonomous Motivational Profile). On the basis of the well-being index, an analysis of variance revealed that both the Autonomous and the High Motivated participants reported a higher degree of psychological well-being.

Our results contribute to a better comprehension of well-being in later life and constitute clinical and preventive proposals to promote well-being.

Motivation and Executive function in Later Life

Evelyne Clément1, Emin Altintas2, Alain Guerrien2, Pierre Jeannelle1, Bruno Vilette2, Bruno Vivicorsi1

1Université de Rouen, France; 2Université de Lille3, France

Despite a widespread concern with the decline of executive function and the loss of motivation in elderly people, very little is known about the relations between executive function and self-determined motivation in later life. In the framework of the Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000), the aim of the present study was to explore these relations. In order to study the specific relation between executive function and self-determined motivation, we assessed executive function and motivational style of 39 nursing home residents. For this, executive function was measured by the Frontal Assessment Battery (Dubois et al., 2000). In addition, the Mini Mental State Examination was used to assess the global cognitive efficiency of the participants (Folstein et al, 1975). The motivational style was assessed using the Elderly Motivation Scale (Vallerand & O’Connor, 1989, 1991) which is formed of four subscales assessing intrinsic motivation, self-determined extrinsic motivation, non self-determined motivation, and amotivation. Results showed that high executive function scores significantly and positively correlated with self-determined motivation. In addition, regressions analyses revealed that the executive scores were the best predictor of the self-determined motivation. These findings suggest that mechanisms underlying executive function constitute a key component of the self-determined motivation in later life.

Sense of Uniqueness as an Intervening Variable between Parental Support for Basic Psychological Need and Adolescents’ Well-Being

Ercan Kocayörük

Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Unıversity, Turkey

The aim of the present study was to examine the association between parental support for basic psychological needs and psychological well-being by investigating a new intervening variable as sense of uniqueness. Several empirical studies have reported that parental support for basic psychological needs is a robust correlate of adolescents’ well being. Yet, less is known about the mechanisms responsible for this link. The present study proposed a model suggesting that personal sense of uniqueness explains why satisfaction of basic psychological needs in parent-child relationships is related to well-being. This mediational model was tested among college students in Turkey. The data were analyzed for the 525 participants (299 female, 226 female) aged between 14 and 18 years (M= 16.35, SD=.09). The data were obtained by using the The Need Satisfaction Scale, Personal Sense of Uniqueness Scale, Self Esteem Scale and Satisfaction with Life Scale. For this purpose, structural equation modeling and bootstrapping procedures were used to assess the mediatory effects of these variables and goodness-of-fit statistics were tested with χ2 (a non-significant value that corresponds to an acceptable fit). The results of the structural model testing revealed a good fit of the model to the data, scaled [χ2 (46, N=525)= 225.05, p<.001, GFI=.99, AGFI= .98, CFI= .97, RMSEA= .084, SRMR= .043]. The findings of the study revealed that basic psychological need support from parents contributed to adolescents’ SoU, which, in turn, results in well-being of adolescents.

Social Well-Being as Need Satisfaction in Social Interaction: A Social Well-Being Adjective List

Jens Kleinert

Germann Sport University Cologne, Germany

This study is on the development and validation of an adjective list measuring social well-being in different situations or contexts. According to self determination theory, the scale aims to operationalize feelings of satisfaction of autonomy, competence, and relatedness during social interaction. It is assumed, that these feelings of basic need satisfaction should appear more positive in “well-being groups” compared with “non-well-being groups”.

Methods. The assessed 12-item-list is theoretically structured in three feeling-components (autonomy, competence, relatedness) each consisting of two positive and two negative adjectives (6-point-Likert Scale). 291 sport students (35% female, 65% male; age M = 21.4, SD = 1.8) were randomly allocated to two conditions. In condition GF+ they were asked to consider a specific group in which they usually feel rather good. In condition GF- they were asked to consider a group associated with rather bad feelings.

Results. The CFA revealed an acceptable model fit (CMIN/df = 1.369; TLI = .994; CFI = .998; RMSEA = .036; SRMR = .0138). However, the subscale intercorrelations were mid to high (.53, .54, .74). The reliability (Cronbach) of the subscales were acceptable or good (autonomy = .70, competence = .78, relatedness = .82). The amount of SOWEAL-factors differed significantly between the GF+ and GF-condition (p<.001; autonomy: η = .11; competence: η = .23; relatedness: η = .24).

Discussion. The scale is able to assess a persons feeling based social need satisfaction. Given high subscale intercorrelations a one-dimensional structure has to be considered.

A model for prediction of psychological well-being among high school students based on perception from parents with mediator roles of academic motivational beliefs

Ghavam moltafet, somayeh sadati firoozabadi

yasouj university, Iran, Islamic Republic of

The purpose of this study was presented a model for psychological well-being among high school students based on perception from parents (perception of autonomy, control, structure and involvement) with regard to mediating roles of motivational beliefs(َAmotivation, extrinsic motivation, Identified motivation and intrinsic motivation). For this reason, 875 high school students (424 male and 451 female) from Shiraz were chosen with multistage cluster sampling. The participants responded to the following scales: psychological well-being scale, perception from parents, and motivational beliefs. These instruments showed appropriate reliability and validity. Path analysis was the major statistical operation run in the study.

The results by path analysis technique showed that the relationship between perception of parents and psychological well-being is influenced by academic motivation. Perception of control from parents had negative direct and indirect effect on psychological well-being through Amotivation and extrinsic motivation, perception of autonomy support had positive direct and indirect effect on psychological well-being through amotivation and intrinsic motivation. In sum, the results showed that motivational beliefs could have a mediator role in perception from parents and well- being. To evaluate the model, multiple indexes of fitness were used which indicated that there were a fitness between the models and data. The implications of results were discussed in relation to the pervious literature. Suggestions for future researches, educational practice and limitation of this study were also discussed

Predicting Physical Activity of Finnish Adolescents: The Role of Attitudes, Norms and Control Factors

Piia af Ursin, Leena Haanpää

University of Turku, Finland

The aim of the present study was to investigate the determinants of physical activity in Finnish adolescents. For this purpose, the theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied (Ajzen, 1991). The TPB-scales were adapted from German scales developed in a qualitative elicitation study (Staudenmaier et al., 2010), supplemented by additional variables and piloted with N = 48 students.

Participants of the study (N = 5189, 1944 6th and 3245 9th graders, 51 % girls, 49 % boys) completed a questionnaire that assessed the standard TPB-constructs, i. e. attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. Measures for self-reported structured and unstructured physical activity behavior were applied as criteria. The reliabilities of the TPB –scales can be considered as evidence of a successful scale construction (.82 ≤ α ≤ .94). Furthermore, the scales proved to be valid predictors for the applied criteria: The TPB predictor scales explained structured (R2 = .25) as well as unstructured (R2 = .24) physical activity. This applied for 6th as well as for 9th graders. This study supports the use of the theory of planned behavior in gaining an understanding of the physical activity versus inactivity of adolescents.

Obsessive and Harmonious passion for work: The case of French farmers

Camille AMOURA1, Sophie BERJOT1, Emin ALTINTAS2

1Université de Reims - Champagne Ardenne, France; 2University of Lille North of France - Lille 3, France

According to the motivational approach of passion (Vallerand et al., 2003), an activity is qualified as a passion when it presents three properties: it is perceived as pleasant, is defined as important and involves time and energy investment. This approach is also dualistic with two forms of passion: obsessive and harmonious passion. The aim of this study is explore the effects of passion in terms of levels and type (i.e. obsessive versus harmonious) on job related stress, and suicidal risk in a population of French milk producers.

Seventy and three French farmers were recruited. Three variables were assessed: (1) passion (Passion scale, Rousseau et al., 2002), (2) stress (Perceived stress scale, Cohen et al., 1983), (3) suicidal risk (Hopelessness scale, Beck et al., 1974). Correlation analyses were realized, completed by cluster analysis on passion’ subscales, which it allowed to determine passion profiles within the sample. The effect of this was then tested on our dependant variables.

Results revealed first of all a high number of passionate producers as well as a high level of stress and suicidal risk. Second of all, our results showed that the two forms of passion are significantly associated to stress, and hopelessness. Third, cluster analysis showed that 3 groups solution fitted the data resulting in three passion profiles (High, Moderate, Low) and that those profiles had a distinct effect on stress and suicidal risk. These results allowed us to demonstrate the role of passion in adjustment but also the distinctive effect of the type of passion.

Motivational profile of overweight and obese Dutch adults willing to participate in a lifestyle intervention: quantity versus quality of motivation regarding physical activity and healthy nutrition

Jessie Meis, Stef Kremers, Geert Rutten

Maastricht University, Netherlands, The

Introduction: Combined lifestyle interventions have shown to be effective in the reduction of overweight and obesity. However, in the long-term these lifestyle changes are often not sustained. Motivation is an important determinant of behaviour maintenance. The concept of motivation has previously been assessed in various ways, i.e. measuring the quantity (amount, or intensity) of motivation, or the quality (type) of motivation. This study aims to assess both the quantity as well as the quality of motivation regarding physical activity and healthy nutrition among overweight and obese Dutch adults.

Methods: A sample of 185 participants completed a survey before entrance in a lifestyle intervention. Measures included self reported physical activity and dietary behaviour. Quality of motivation was measured by the SDT-based BREQ-2 and REBS, whereas quantity of motivation was assessed on a scale from 1 (not motivated) to 10 (very motivated). Analyses included descriptive statistics, correlations and linear regression analyses.

Results: Results show that participants had a reasonably high amount of motivation to be physically active (M=7.42, SD=1.14) and to eat healthy (M=7.48, SD=1.13). Participants showed predominantly autonomous types of motivation regarding physical activity and a mixture of controlled and autonomous types of motivation regarding healthy nutrition. Correlations show that higher quantitative motivation was related to lower amotivation and higher identified and intrinsic motivation. Further associations were found between both motivational measures and self reported health behaviours.

Discussion: The present study showed that quantitative motivation and quality of motivation are different concepts measuring motivation regarding being physically active and eating healthy.

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