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POS-1: Self-Determined Motivation
Contribution of academic decision-making context in predicting subsequent motivation to school
Université Lille nord de France, France
This research focuses on the relations between context in which the academic decision-making progresses and student’s later motivation to school, according to self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2002). Some students perceive their academic decision-making as constrained or determined by external influences; others feel it as self-determined or chosen. These two situations are supposed to have a different impact on motivation to school. Effectively, an unchosen academic decision-making means that student follow a pathway that doesn’t match his or her interests and aspirations, whereas a chosen academic pathway reflects a personal choice. So, the first is supposed to hinder later academic motivation, whereas the latter would promote autonomous motivation. 702 students, from 11th grade, completed two questionnaires: the academic motivation scale (Vallerand, 1991) and a questionnaire (in the process of validation – Brasselet & Guerrien) that evaluates self-determined academic decision-making and the perception of positive and negative influence in the academic choice. The results indicate that a chosen academic pathway is associated to an autonomous academic motivation. Positive influence is a significant predictor of autonomous and controlled motivation. Finally, negative influence is related to controlled motivation. That confirms the context in which educational guidance proceeds may have an impact on later motivation. These results in line with SDT seem to have a great interest for practitioners in terms of motivational remediation insofar as they facilitate a better understanding of the reasons of certain academic difficulties related to the topic of educational guidance.
A Theoretical and Empirical Examination of links between Self Determination Theory and Reversal Theory: Psychological Need Satisfaction and Meta-motivational State Reversals
Aberystwyth University, United Kingdom
The proposed poster will present theoretical arguments and pilot data from two laboratory-based studies that examine links between Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000) and reversal theory (Apter, 1982). SDT discusses innate psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, satisfaction of which is essential for psychological health, well-being, and exploration of inherent growth tendencies. Reversal theory proposes four mutually exclusive pairs of meta-motivational states which are characterised by distinct ways of interpreting one’s own motivation (e.g., telic vs. paratelic: Apter, 2001); regular reversal between states is required to be considered ‘psychologically healthy’ however, the precise triggers of reversals are unclear. It is argued that need satisfaction and thwarting may act to induce a reversal. Further, we suggest that lability and frequency of individuals' reversals may contribute to well-being through enabling a balanced satisfaction of one's needs (cf. Sheldon & Gunz, 2009; Sheldon & Niemiec, 2006).
Using environmental manipulations of need satisfaction (e.g., Deci, Eghrari, Patrick, & Leone, 1994) and implicit association tests to identify meta-motivational states, the pilot data will establish whether need thwarting causes frustration induced reversals (e.g., from conformist state to negativistic state), and whether need satisfaction causes satiation induced reversals (e.g., from telic state to paratelic state). From an applied perspective the ability to induce reversals and achieve a balance of need satisfaction may prevent maladaptive behaviours associated with both need thwarting and inhibited reversals.
What Predicts Middle School Students’ Intrinsic Motivation in Mathematics? The Relationship between Perceived Teacher Autonomy Support and Adolescents’ Self-Determined Academic Motivation
Mercer University, United States of America
This study applied self-determination theory (SDT) to investigate the relationship between seventh grade students’ perceptions of their math teacher’s autonomy support and their intrinsic motivation and academic achievement in prealgebra. Participants (N = 362) and their five math teachers were drawn from an ethnically-diverse public middle school in the southeastern United States. Participants completed the Learning Climate Questionnaire (Williams & Deci, 1996) to measure their perceived teacher autonomy support; the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (McAuley, Duncan, & Tammen, 1989) to measure their interest/enjoyment, value/usefulness, pressure/tension, and perceived competence; and the Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire (Ryan & Connell, 1989), which was used to calculate students’ Relative Autonomy Index, to measure their self-determined academic motivation. Two district-generated standardized multiple-choice math tests measured academic achievement.
Hierarchical multiple regression identified the most parsimonious model of students’ intrinsic motivation in their prealgebra class. Teacher autonomy support significantly predicted interest/enjoyment, followed by relative autonomy, perceived competence, and pressure/tension, respectively. Academic achievement was unrelated to intrinsic motivation within the regression analyses, but it was significantly related to pressure/tension and perceived competence as bivariate correlations.
Bivariate correlations found strong evidence of motivation lying along a continuum of self-determined behavior—as espoused by SDT—in which certain types of motivation are more autonomous than others. Participants’ interest/enjoyment, value/usefulness, perceived competence, and reduced pressure/tension were more closely related to autonomous forms of motivation than they were to controlling forms of motivation. Teacher autonomy support was associated with more autonomous academic motivation.
Comparing factor structure of research motivation in PhD and M.A student
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
Aim: The aim of this research is comparing factor structure of research motivation in PhD and M.A. students. Method: used method in this research is descriptive and a test making. For doing this, we choice a sample (n= 280) that selected from PhD and M.A. students in Ferdowsi university of Mashhad and medicine science university of Mashhad in 2010-2011. For gathering data, we used research motivation scale based on self-determination theory. Results: Results of exploration of factor of analysis showed that research motivation have three components in all samples. Reliability was satisfied; First component is internal motivation (α=0/93) , second component is external motivation (α=0/88) and final component is Amotivation (α=0/76). Thus Academic Motivation scale with 7 sub-scales dose not conformant. Also this results by confirmatory factor analysis was show that scale is valid for all (NNFI=0/94, RSMEA= 0/08, χ2/df<3). For PhD and M.A. group of students scale was reliable and valid.
The Effect of Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism on Intrinsic Motivation after Success-or-Failure Feedback
University of Rochester, United States of America
Several authors have suggested that dysfunctional parent-child relationship leads to the development of maladaptive perfectionism, defined by an excessive concern over mistakes and doubt of one’s actions. According to Assor, Roth, and Deci (2006), positive parental conditional regard, in which love is provided in condition of children’s certain behaviors, and negative parental conditional regard, in which love is withdrawn when the children fail to meet parents’ standards, can lead to the children’s later ill-being. As such, the first aim of the present research is to provide further evidence of whether positive and negative parental conditional regard also predict maladaptive perfectionism. It also shows whether individuals who do not experience these parental approaches will develop a more adaptive form of perfectionism, which involves a personal striving for high standards, and has been found to predict academic achievements and motivation. In the second part of the study, the same group of participants was randomly assigned into two groups. Both groups were asked to engage in inherently interesting puzzles, in which those in the first group were told that they had finished only 39% of the total puzzles, while participants in the second group were told that they had succeeded at 92% of the puzzles. The present results demonstrate whether receiving success-vs-failure feedback after performing an interesting task moderates the extent to which adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism impact intrinsic motivation for the task.
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Conference: ICM 2012
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